How Do My Genetics Affect Caffeine And Blood Pressure
Genetics may account for up to 50% of differences in blood pressure . There is one gene specifically responsible for metabolizing caffeine called CYP1A2. Depending on your version of it, you are either good to go or youd better be careful.
The CYP1A2 rs762551 C variant is what is called the slow-metabolizing variant. If you are stuck with this, your body metabolizes caffeine slower than normal. Your risk of hypertension is higher if you consume caffeine .
If, on the other hand, you have one of the A variants, or what is known as the fast-metabolizing version, your risk of hypertension may actually be lower . Good news! Caffeine may actually protect you from hypertension!
Now, we wont say this justifies hitting up the coffee shop every morning in the name of good health, but at least you can strike that worry off the list.
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Habitual Coffee Consumption And Risk Of Cvd In Hypertensive Subjects
Five cohort studies were conducted in the United States, one in Finland , and the other in Sweden . Except for one study designed as a cohort of hypertensive individuals , the rest were large cohort studies in different populations with no clinical inclusion criterion, in which a subcohort developed hypertension during follow-up. Three cohorts included persons aged 30 y , and the others included those older than 48 y and 64 y . The study quality was good. In 5 studies, hypertension was defined on the basis of measured BP values . Two studies were based on self-reported history of hypertension or on a diagnosis of hypertension reported by nurses and were therefore very reliable . Habitual consumption of coffee was reported at the beginning of follow-up and in one study was updated every 4 y. In all studies, information on CVD was confirmed by review of the medical record or death certificate. Length of follow-up varied from 4 to 25 y. Finally, in all cases, the results were adjusted for the main confounding factors.
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Some Reports Say Theres No Direct Link Between Caffeine And Blood Pressure
According to Mayo Clinic:
Caffeine can cause a short, but dramatic increase in your blood pressure, even if you don’t have high blood pressure. It’s unclear what causes this spike in blood pressure. Some researchers believe that caffeine could block a hormone that helps keep your arteries widened. Others think that caffeine causes your adrenal glands to release more adrenaline, which causes your blood pressure to increase.
Recent studies, however, have repeatedly reported that caffeine doesnt necessarily lead to an increased blood pressure, nor does it up the risk for cardiovascular diseases like high blood pressure, heart disease and cardiac arrest.
Verywellhealth.com also states a well-known study stating that theres no direct link between caffeine and a rise in blood pressure:
One very well-known study examined more than 85,000 women over a ten-year period and found that there was no increased risk of these diseases, even in women who drank more than six cups of coffee per day.
The Joint National Committee on Hypertension likewise reports that theres indeed no evidence that caffeine leads to high blood pressure.
And heres another silver lining:
Caffeine Blood Pressure And The Heart
Evidence has repeatedly shown that consumption of caffeine does not increase the risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, or heart attack. One very well-known study examined more than 85,000 women over a ten-year period and found that there was no increased risk of these diseases, even in women who drank more than six cups of coffee per day. The Joint National Committee on Hypertension has specifically stated that there is no evidence linking coffee/tea and high blood pressure.
While some studies have shown a weak link between caffeine and elevations in blood pressure, the results are complicated and only consider short-term effects.
For example, one widely quoted study found that blood pressure rose slightly in subjects almost immediately after consuming a caffeinated beverage and that this blood pressure rise was more pronounced in people with pre-existing high blood pressure. However, these elevations were not very large and only lasted a short time. The study also showed that in about 15 percent of people with existing high blood pressure, drinking a caffeinated beverage actually caused a decrease in blood pressure.
Two important studies published in 2007 further supported the existing body of evidence by again demonstrating that:
- Caffeine-induced blood pressure changes were small and short-lived
- Caffeine does not contribute to disorders of the blood vessels associated with high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease
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Caffeine Has An Immediate Short
Coffee is the most popular hot beverage in the Americas, Australia and most of Europe.
As coffee beans contain caffeine, that makes coffee our biggest source of caffeine.
Caffeine is a psychoactive drug that stimulates the release of certain hormones in the brain . This is why coffee gives us an energy kick.
Caffeine also gives a kick to our blood pressure, and is actually a well-documented pressor . Increases tend to be mild, in the range of 5 to 10 mmHg. Thats regardless of how often you drink coffee or your caffeine tolerance, although there are always rare exceptions .
Caffeine appears to have a greater pressor effect on those with elevated blood pressure compared to those with normal blood pressure. And those effects are not suppressed by the use of blood pressure lowering medications .
Coffee is sounding pretty grim right now, but caffeine only appears to elevate blood pressure for about 3 hours before the effect subsides .
So what does this mean for our health in the long run?
Summary: Drinking coffee immediately increases blood pressure, regardless of your caffeine tolerance. The effect typically only lasts for a maximum of 3 hours though.
How Much Is Too Much Caffeine
People are debating this currently, but less than 6 cups of coffee a day should be safe. If you drink more than that long term, you might be at higher risk for heart disease.
You may have heard some media outlets saying recently that its safe to drink as much as 25 cups of coffee a day. Thats an exaggeration. The study theyve been referring to didnt actually look at people who drank more than 25 cups of coffee per day. In fact, most of the people in the heavy coffee drinker category reported only drinking 5 cups a day. Also, the study measured blood pressure, heart rate, and blood vessel stiffnessnot whether patients developed heart disease. We also dont know how long patients in the study stuck to their reported caffeine consumption.
So, as we mentioned, 6 cups a day or less is generally fine. Really, the biggest health concern lies in how you prepare your drink. The sugar and cream that many people like to add to coffee and tea can come with far more health risks than caffeine itself. Those extra calories have no benefits and can raise your risk for diabetes and heart disease over time.
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How Do You Know If Caffeine Affects Your Blood Pressure
To test whether caffeine has an effect in raising your blood pressure, check your blood pressure between 30 and 120 minutes after ingesting caffeine. An increase of five to 10 points indicates you are sensitive to caffeine, and you should cut back on it, Mayo Clinic says. To avoid withdrawal symptoms such as headaches, irritability and fatigue, cut back over several days.
A doctor can tell you whether to stop taking caffeine or limit your intake of it if you do have high blood pressure. He may advise you to cut back and have no more than 200 milligrams of caffeine per day.
That equates to about two 12-ounce cups of coffee or five Viter Energy Mints. While the amount of caffeine varies a lot in coffee, Viter Energy Mints contains 40 milligrams of caffeine.
If you lift weights or do physical labor and have high blood pressure, avoid caffeine before engaging in those activities, Mayo Clinic says.
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Best Food For High Blood Pressure
A healthy diet along with foods that are high in potassium and magnesium can decrease blood pressure.
I have compiled the following list of best foods for high blood pressure:
- pumpkin seeds
Adding foods like leafy greens,berries,lentils, seeds, and citrus fruits to your meals can help maintain blood pressure and improve your wellbeing.
All these food items are exceptionally delicious. So, I suggest including some of it in your daily meals.
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Synthesis Of The Data
In each clinical trial, the net effect of coffee/caffeine on BP was calculated as the difference in mean SBP and DBP change between the intervention and control groups. In crossover designs, the effect of coffee/caffeine was calculated as the difference in BP between the intervention and control periods.
In the meta-analysis of clinical trials on the acute effects of coffee/caffeine on BP, each period of time with BP measurements after the administration of coffee/caffeine was considered as an independent stratum . When a study had more than one measurement in the same period of observation, we used the mean of those measurements. For example, in the study by Freestone and Ramsay , 3 strata were considered, because measures after caffeine intake were available for the first , second , and third periods of observation in both the intervention and control groups. However, protocols a and b in the study by Potter et al were considered as independent studies because they considered different times of caffeine abstinence before the intervention and included a different number of participants. Because none of the studies selected presented the SDi of the mean BP in each stratum, it was estimated by using the following formula:
where SEMi is the SEM in each stratum and ni is the size of each stratum. In studies without information on SEM or other sources to calculate the SD , the SEM was imputed in a standardized way by using the prognostic method with the following formula:
Caffeines Effect On Blood Pressure
Disclaimer: Results are not guaranteed*** and may vary from person to person***.
Americans love coffee. About 80% of Americans drink coffee every day, and the caffeine within it does affect blood pressure. Thankfully these effects arent necessarily harmful, but there is a definite link between coffee, caffeine, and blood pressure.
The average 12-ounce cup of coffee has around 100 milligrams of caffeine, generally speaking, though there are variations when it comes to brand, roast, etc. Within 30 minutes to two hours, youll experience the strongest stimulant effects of caffeine, which can include an accelerated heart rate and a higher than normal blood pressure.
But dont let this worry you. The impacts of caffeine are acute, meaning they wont lead to chronic high blood pressure for the majority of the population. That said, people with hypertension should definitely monitor their intake to avoid increased risk of a heart attack. As far as overall heart health goes, caffeine poses no long-term threat to blood pressure in people with normal, or even slightly high, blood pressure.
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Does Caffeine Raise Blood Pressure
Millions of people cant start their day without a good cup of coffee, and its no surprise.
The caffeine in coffee gives them an extra bounce in their step, and starting your day with a ritual that youre used to can help you get in the swing of things.
But are there any drawbacks to your favorite morning pick-me-up?
While caffeine has its benefits, there are also some concerns about its link to hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
Many people have wondered whether caffeine can raise blood pressure or worsen hypertension.
This guide will answer all your questions.
Consume Caffeine In Moderation
Caffeine can cause elevations in blood pressure, however, this is usually temporary. Yet, the regular intake of caffeine in someone who has known high blood pressure can cause that person to have sustained levels of high blood pressure. It depends on how much caffeine the person consumes during the day. Caffeine can increase blood pressure to a certain degree after prolonged use. One professional study suggests that people who consume caffeine may have higher than average blood pressure. However, this particular study was limited and its results are not universally accepted. It appears that most caffeine intake studies have been unable to show alterations in blood pressure in those who drink small amounts of coffee or tea. Caffeinated drinks can be part of a healthy lifestyle, however, the amount consumed should be in moderation.
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Your Genes Play A Huge Part In Your Risk
Based on those studies alone, it appears youre in the clear to indulge every day
But its not that straight forward.
Not all the large observational studies found that regular coffee consumption is harmless. A possible reason for the inconsistent findings is that the population varies in underlying responses to caffeine.
How well we metabolise and tolerate caffeine is determined by our genes.
Individual genetic variations influence how our body reacts to external factors, especially how it reacts to the nutrients we eat. Genetic variations can influence metabolism for loads of nutrients such as alcohol , folate and folic acid , and caffeine too.
Depending on your genes, you may be a fast caffeine metaboliser or a slow one. This greatly influences how your blood pressure responds to coffee, as well as your heart disease risk .
Sadly, Im a super slow caffeine metaboliser, which is why I drink decaf.
Therefore, although caffeine only raises blood pressure short-term, those who are slow caffeine metabolisers and consume large amounts of coffee are probably at greater risk of negative cardiovascular health consequences.
In other words, if you are sensitive to caffeine and already have high blood pressure, it would be in your best interest to minimise intake or drink decaf where possible.
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How Coffee Affects Blood Pressure Readings
A blood pressure reading consists of two numbers, each of which measures the pressure against your arteries as your blood is moving through them systolic blood pressure is the reading when your heart beats, and diastolic blood pressure is the reading between beats. According to the CDC, a normal blood pressure reading falls under a systolic reading of 120 and a diastolic reading of 80.
Coffee and other caffeinated beverages cause the muscles of the arterial walls to tighten and the blood vessels’ diameter to decreasea process called vasoconstrictionwhich raises blood pressure, notes cardiologist Dr. Seamus Whelton of Johns Hopkins Medicine. But studies have shown that blood pressure spikes from coffee last only a few hours. Habitual coffee drinkers likely develop a tolerance. In fact, one study showed that after two weeks of drinking coffee, the blood pressure increase had vanished. However, says Dr. Whelton, if you are keeping a close watch on your blood pressure, you should refrain from caffeine for at least half an hour before taking your readings.