Identification Of Breast Cancer Cases
In each biennial questionnaire, participants were asked whether they had been diagnosed as having breast cancer in the previous two years, and we attempted to interview nonrespondents by telephone. The response rates were approximately 90 percent for each questionnaire. Deaths were identified by a report from a family member, the postal service or the National Death Index. When a case of breast cancer was reported, we asked the participant for permission to obtain medical records. Since self-reports have been confirmed by pathology reports in 98% of instances, we included the few-self reported cases for whom we could not obtain medical records in the analysis. Pathology reports were also reviewed to obtain information on estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status. 74 percent of the cases had receptor status information . Cases of carcinoma in situ were not included in the analysis.
Coffee Prevents The Tumor From Going Into Repair Mode When Damaged By Cancer Treatments Like Chemotherapy And Radiation Therapy
Cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation therapy mediate their action through causing excessive DNA damage to the cancer cells, thereby causing the cells to die. The death of cancer cells can also activate the immune system that is needed to clear the dead cells. Cancer cells re-engineer themselves for survival and in the event of damage, upregulate the repair machinery through increasing the production of repair genes such as ATM and ATR.
Caffeine can inhibit ATM and ATR proteins and prevent repair of cancer DNA damage, thus making the cancer cell more vulnerable to being killed by other cancer treatments. By inhibiting the cellular repair machinery in cancer cells, caffeine helps with complementing the effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy also, along with its actions on reducing the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment.
Caffeine Reactivates The Immune System Near The Tumors
Deprivation of oxygen limits availability of energy sources and induces accumulation of extracellular Adenosine in tumors . Accumulation of Adenosine also happens when chemo or radio therapy attacks tumors .
Adenosine, binds to adenosine receptors on the surface of various immune cells cells) leading to an immunosuppressive environment . Indeed, the significance of adenosine in tumor survival strategy has been already shown in preclinical studies that demonstrate tumor regression after inactivation of adenosine receptors .
In line with the above points, adenosine has an anti inflamatory action. Which in general is good. However, its high occurrence around the tumors is detrimental when fighting cancer. Therefore, when searching for ways to increase immune reactions during anti cancer treatments, the inhibition of adenosine receptors is an important aspect to consider.
Adenosine receptors are of several types, and caffeine can inhibit those receptors leading to reactivation of the immune system cells . Adenosine receptors inhibition, is the same mechanism through which caffeine affects brain functions such as sleep, cognition, learning, and memory, and modifies brain dysfunctions and diseases: Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, Huntingtons disease, Epilepsy, Pain/Migraine, Depression, Schizophrenia .
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Chemotherapyis It Really That Badyour Experiences Please
Ok. Having read a few topics recently i’ve noticed that a lot of people seem very frightened of chemotherapy.
Rightly so too….like anything unknown it can be scary.
Maybe some of us who’ve had the experience can help by posting our type of chemo..and telling what it was like,
Do you think this is a good idea?? can you help??
I had 6 cycles of CNOP for treatment of anaplastic large cell lymphoma
They were 3 weeks apart.
On the whole it was not too bad.
one of the drugs did make me feel very ‘heavy headed’ for a few days after getting it.
another drug in the combination had the effect of making some of my nerve endings play up
The whole regime wasn’t overly awful. I didnt lose my hair and the chemo slowed down the regrowth rate of hair/nails etc.
The Chemo was followed for the next 5 days with a course of tablets/steroids etc which were ok…but taking a total of 37 tablets was a bit of a chore
All in all…looking back it wasn’t as bad as i expected…i was frightened of having the drugs before i started, but once into the swing of things it was ok.
Hard at the time…but do-able all the same. and so far it’s worked.
What a really useful thread!
Come on others!
My mum has just had her second dose yesterday so on week two. She was full of bravdo telling me she didn’t want me around, wouldn’t get any side effects, lose her hair etc.
What a good idea Imabloke. Here’s mine.
Postmenopausal Women Who Drink Coffee Have A Statistically Significant Reduced Risk Of Developing Estrogen Receptor
It turns out that coffee drinkers have a lower incidence of breast cancer overall than those who abstain however, when researchers really dug into the correlation and corrected for other lifestyle factorssuch as weight, level of physical activity, family history, and age at menopausethe protective effect of coffee was only measurable for ER-negative breast cancer. The results of the study showed a modest decrease in overall breast cancer risk and a significant reduction in the risk of ER-negative breast cancer.
This doesnt mean that postmenopausal women who want to avoid breast cancer need only to slurp coffee to avoid the disease. What it means is that if you tend to avoid indulging in coffee based on the perception that it could harm your healthyou may be able to enjoy this simple pleasure without the extra helping of guilt.
Its still important to maintain a healthy weight, stay physically active, eat a nutrient-dense diet, and avoid smoking however, if you do all those things and still want to enjoy your morning cup of coffee, it appears that you can do so without worry. The bottom linebalance is always best.
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Meat Fish Fowl Eggs Dairy Products
All beef, all pork, all fish, all turkey, and all chicken should be avoided during cancer treatment. There are many reasons for these restrictions. The only exception is that if a person is fighting weight loss some fresh, freshwater fish can be eaten if that is the only thing the cancer patient will eat .
Avoid all dairy products, including butter, all cheeses, and all malts, except cottage cheese or skim milk when used in the Budwig Diet. One exception is that pregnant and nursing women should eat two eggs per day because the choline is necessary for the baby’s brain development and the baby takes precedence since two eggs a day is not life-threatening to a cancer patient.
If a person must have milk, the only acceptable variety is unprocessed goat’s milk, from organically raised and grazing goats.
The rule of thumb: If it contains something that came from an animal, it is forbidden.
Is There Any Amount Of Alcohol That Is Safe To Drink During Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can be taxing on the liver. Alcohol is processed by the liver. For this reason, some oncologists recommend completely avoiding alcohol during treatment.
If you have a special occasion, party, or event and want to enjoy a glass of wine, a beer, or a cocktail, check with your oncologist to make sure its OK.
Suzanne Dixon is a registered dietitian, epidemiologist, and medical writer.
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Why Fluids Are Important During Chemotherapy
According to the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center , it’s important to increase the amount of fluids you drink when receiving chemo treatments. The reason? Some chemo drugs can cause dehydration, and certain chemotherapy side effects, such as diarrhea and vomiting, may also contribute to this condition, per BreastCancer.org.
“In fact, the American Cancer Society recommends drinking at least eight 8-ounce servings of liquids per day,” reports Adil Akhtar, MD, an oncologist, palliative care expert and an associate professor at the Oakland University-William Beaumont School of Medicine in Auburn Hills, Michigan. Per UPMC, good fluids to keep you hydrated during chemo include water, juice, broth-based soups, ice cream, ice pops, milk and gelatin.
As for caffeinated beverages, such as soda, coffee and tea, their dehydrating effects aren’t as strong as once believed. According to the Mayo Clinic, drinking beverages that contain caffeine can add to your regular fluid intake and play a role in a healthful lifestyle without causing significant fluid loss. Dr. Akhtar agrees. “Caffeine is safe during chemo as long as it’s consumed in moderation,” he confirms.
How Might Tea Help Prevent Cancer
Among their many biological activities, the predominant polyphenols in green teaEGCG, EGC, ECG, and ECand the theaflavins and thearubigins in black teas have antioxidant activity . These chemicals, especially EGCG and ECG, have substantial free radical scavenging activity and may protect cells from DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species . Tea polyphenols have also been shown to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in laboratory and animal studies . In other laboratory and animal studies, tea catechins have been shown to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor cell invasiveness . In addition, tea polyphenols may protect against damage caused by ultraviolet B radiation , and they may modulateimmune system function . Furthermore, green teas have been shown to activate detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase, that may help protect against tumor development . Although many of the potential beneficial effects of tea have been attributed to the strong antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols, the precise mechanism by which tea might help prevent cancer has not been established .
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Tea And Bladder Cancer
Tea is a rich source of biologically active compounds, including polyphenols. Animal models have shown that certain polyphenols found within green tea inhibited bladder cancer tumour growth. However, more evidence is required to assess any possible anti-tumorigenic role of tea consumption on bladder cancer.
Coffee And Cancer What Does The Evidence Say
- 4 minute read
Coffee is one of the worlds most popular drinks, and its the way many of us choose to jump-start our day. But is it possible that its beneficial effects go further than a morning pick-me-up?
As you may have already read in the news, the International Agency for Research on Cancer , a group of international cancer experts convened by the World Health Organisation, has just concluded that theres no strong evidence that coffee increases your chances of cancer .
But there may also be some other good news for those of us who are coffee drinkers: theres also some emerging evidence that coffee could in fact reduce the risk of certain cancers.
In this post well discuss what their announcement means in practice. But whats worth saying from the outset is, although there is indeed some evidence that coffee may reduce cancer risk, there are still question marks over the finding. And its certainly not enough for us to start recommending people should start drinking coffee if they dont already.
And its also worth noting that, in the same report, IARC has also concluded that drinking very hot drinks may increase the risk of oesophageal cancer. But while drinks of this temperature, such as tea and mate, are popular in Middle Eastern countries and South America, its much hotter than how we generally prefer our tea in the UK.
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Coffee Cuts Risk Of Liver Cancer
Research has found that regular coffee consumption can reduce the risk of liver cancer by 40 percent. In fact, the studypublished in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatologyfound that people who consume more than three cups of coffee per day reduce their risk by more than 50 percent.
Researchers conducted a meta-analysis of data collected between 1996 and 2012 and then selected 16 studies that involved a total of 3,153 liver cancer cases. They included data on 900 more recent cases of HCC published since their last detailed study from 2007.
They found that individuals who consume any amount of coffee have a 40 percent reduced risk of HCC compared to those who drink no coffee. Whats more, the higher the consumption, the more the risk was reduced. Those who drank more than three cups per day had a 50 percent or more reduced risk. The association between coffee and reduced risk was consistent regardless of gender, alcohol consumption, or history of hepatitis or liver disease.
The researchers concluded that coffee appears to reduce the risk of liver cancer. They speculate that it might affect liver enzymes and the development of cirrhosis and therefore, could protect against liver cancer.
Foods To Eat During Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is a common cancer treatment that uses one or more drugs to combat cancer cells in your body.
Its symptoms, which may include dry mouth, taste changes, nausea, and fatigue, can make eating seem like a chore.
However, its important to eat a healthy, balanced diet during cancer treatment to keep your body functioning optimally. Foods that are mild in flavor, easy on your stomach, and nutrient-dense are some of the best options (
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Prescription Drugs And The Cancer Diet
The FDA states, What you eat and drink can affect the way your medicines work. Use this guide to alert you to possible food-drug interactions and to help you learn what you can do to prevent them.
A food-drug interaction can:
prevent a medicine from working the way it should cause a side effect from medicine to get worse or better cause a new side effect
Medicine can also change the way your body uses food. Any of these changes can be harmful.
The FDA offers the following guide that covers interactions between some common prescription and over-the-counter medicines and food, caffeine, and alcohol.
Here is an article on flavonoids and drug interactions.
Other ContraindicationsCaution should be used when two drugs or procedures are used together. and the Cancer Diet include, but are NOT limited to
- Do not mix large amounts of leafy greens and blood thinners
- Do not mix MSM and blood thinners
- Do not mix oleander and blood thinners
- Flavonoids and nutrient interactions. See: Flavonoids interactions
The Science Of Coffee
While coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world, we may not really appreciate the science that is involved in its production. Coffee is made from ground, roasted coffee beans, which are actually the dried, caffeine-rich seeds of coffee plant berries. Coffees chemical properties vary according to the particular coffee bush, how the coffee bean is processed and roasted, and how the coffee is prepared for consumption. Accordingly, the composition of coffee is complex and includes caffeine and other compounds, including those that are biologically active.
Notably, no proven risk of cancer with coffee drinking has been found and some health benefits associated with its consumption have been suggested. However, trace components in coffee, such as acrylamide, have received attention in the scientific community and the following summarizes what has been found.
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Should People Drink Less Coffee
Current US dietary guidelines state that moderate coffee intake, providing up to 400 mg/day of caffeine, can be part of a healthy diet in adults. Australia and New Zealand guidelines also state a maximum daily limit of 400 mg caffeine for adults .
Caffeine content varies according to the type of coffee beverage for example, a 250-mL cup of instant coffee contains around 80 mg of caffeine whereas a 30-mL single shot of espresso contains around 100 mg. The amount of caffeine in a single espresso shot may also vary: US guidelines estimate 64 mg/30 mL, whereas an Australian study measured 126 mg/30 mL.12, 14, 15 Therefore when estimating caffeine intake, it is important to use reliable, country-specific guidelines for different coffee beverages.
From a health perspective it is also relevant to consider the calorie content of your preferred brew, particularly if you like to use whole milk, cream, and/or added sugar.
Track Your Side Effects
If you have side effects from chemotherapy that are bothersome, such as nausea, vomiting, rash, swelling, or unusual pain around the injection site, write these down.
Your healthcare provider or nurse will need to know how often you’re having problems, how severe they are, and how you’re coping. If you have notes to refer to when you visit the healthcare provider it’s easier to recall and bring up any concerns which you had.
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Caffeine Induces Vasodilation & Better Blood Flow To The Tumor Supporting The Transport Of Drugs To The Tumor Locations
In order to grow fast, tumors grow new blood vessels relatively fast to continue receiving the required supplies. As a result the blood vessels grown by the tumors are often malfunctioning, leaking fluids out of the vessels . This hinders effective transit of drugs to the tumor .
Caffeine is a well known vasodilation. The mechanisms behind this phenomena are multiple, many of which are an outcome of its adenosine receptor inhibition action , and are discussed in detail in the references .
This vasodilation characteristic of caffeine is very helpful, as it enables the drug to better reach the tumor location. Indeed, restoring leaky blood vessels could increase chemo effectiveness . In addition, more oxygen will reach the tumor which is expected to specifically help both chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Therefore, caffeine taken before and during the chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or immunotherapy cycles may lead to improvement of the therapy outcome.
Note: Nitroglycerin is a drug with vasodilation capabilities that was shown to enhanced the delivery of the anticancer drugs to tumors . Other supplements with vasodilation properties are Niacin and Quercetin.