Study Design And Participants
The present data was analysed using an observational prospective design conducted within the frame of the PREDIMED-PLUS study, which included 6874 older adults enrolled between 2013 and 2016 by 23 Spanish centers working in collaboration with 208 National Health System primary care clinics. Briefly, PREDIMED-Plus is an ongoing, 6-year, multicenter, parallel randomized clinical trial evaluating the long-term effect of a weight-loss intervention based on an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet , physical activity promotion and behavioral support , in comparison with usual-care recommending an energy-unreduced MedDiet , on primary cardiovascular prevention. Eligible participants were overweight/obese men and women aged 5575 years harboring the MetS, but free of cardiovascular disease at enrollment. More specific details of the study cohort and inclusion/exclusion criteria have been reported, and the protocol is available at . Local Ethics Committee approved the study protocol and all participants signed a written informed consent.
For the current study, participants who did not complete the semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire at baseline or those whose total energy intake was outside pre-defined limits were excluded. We also excluded subjects who died or were lost to follow-up within first year of follow-up, and who had missing data on eGFR at baseline or at the 1-year assessment. The remaining 5851 participants comprised the final sample.
How Much Black Tea Is Safe
Of course, having a cup of black tea every so often is perfectly safe for most people. Even though black tea contains higher oxalate levels than most teas, its generally not enough to worry about.
One study looked at the amount of oxalates in black tea and found quite low levels. They concluded that drinking 4 cups of black tea would not pose a risk to kidney stones, and for kidney stone patients they recommended not to consume anything with more than 10 mg of oxalate, which is just over two 8oz mugs according to this study .
Whether you can consume black tea with a kidney condition depends on how severe your condition is, how much youre consuming, and your doctors instructions. While most people can drink reasonable amounts of black tea with no problem, be sure to check with your healthcare professional first if you have issues with kidney health.
Forget An Apple A Day Try Four Cups Of Coffee For A Healthy Liver
He said further research is needed, so coffee lovers may not need to dump their double espressos just yet.
Additionally, a plethora of other research has asserted that coffee can be beneficial to a persons overall health.
In July, researchers with Northwestern University in the Nutrients journal claiming habitual consumption of one or more cups of coffee per day was associated with about a 10% decrease in risk of COVID-19.
In June, findings released in the peer-reviewed medical journal BMC Public Health found that consuming three to four cups of joe a day may reduce the risk of liver cancer and other alcohol-related liver diseases.
And in February, a report in the journal Circulation concluded that drinking at least one cup of coffee a day could help reduce the risk of heart failure.
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Coffee And Genetic Kidney Disease
In the past, basic science studies have indicated that caffeine could increase the risk of growth of kidney cysts in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease .
However, in more current clinical studies, consumption of coffee was not noted to be a risk factor for PKD progression.
The Health Benefits Of Caffeine
In addition to caffeines powerful effects on attention, some of the powerful benefits of caffeine include:
- Increase energy levels. 2
- Boost long-term memory. 3
- Support weight loss. 6, 24
- Reduce the risk of type 2 diabetesmoderate consumption of coffee , but not tea, has been associated with a decreased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. 7
- Support liver health and potentially reduce the risk of liver cancerin one study, 2 cups of coffee a day were associated with a 43% reduction in risk. 8
- Reduce the risk of oral cancers: research suggests drinking coffee may also protect against oral cancers, decreasing the risk by up to 50. 9
- Decreased risk of basal cell skin cancer. 10
- Reduce the risk of Parkinson disease. 11, 12
- Protect against Alzheimers disease. 13
- Decrease the risk for cataracts. 14
- Decrease the risk of suicide: 3 large cohort studies suggest an association between reduced risk of suicide and caffeine consumption. 15
- Modestly reduce risk of stroke. 16, 17
- Decrease the risk of multiple sclerosissix cups of coffee a day were linked to a 31% lower risk in one study. 18
Its important to point out that many of these health benefits of caffeine are tied to coffee consumption, not specifically caffeine, which, believe it or not, is actually an antioxidant. So, if youre getting your caffeine from other less-healthy sources , you have to take into considerate what else is along for the ride .
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Wondering What Other Strategies We Use To Support Kidney Health
To find out more about how we use the power of nutrition to preserve kidney function, consider joining our monthly class. If you prefer a one-to-one setting, you can schedule a consult with one of our expert Renal Dietitians.
- ½ cup hot water
- ½ cup canned coconut milk
- Optional: honey or sweeteners, to taste
Caffeine As A Diuretic
Caffeine, which belongs to a class of substances called methylxanthines, is a mild diuretic. Theophylline, another drug in this class, was actually used as a diuretic until more potent diuretics were developed. Both of these drugs act on the kidneys by preventing absorption of water. Research reported by R.J. Maughan and J. Griffin in the December 2003 “Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics” noted that people who had not had any caffeine for a few days had increased urinary output after drinking the amount of caffeine equivalent to two to three cups of coffee.
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What Did The Study Find
The team, led by a doctor from Portugal, examined data from 4,863 Americans with CKD between 1999 to 2010, as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey . Even after considering factors such as age, diet, and other diseases, there was still a reduction in death.
Patients were put into four groups: The first group consumed the amount of caffeine in a cup of iced tea the second had an amount of caffeine equivalent to a cup of coffee the third had the equivalent of a cup or two per day the fourth group had up to 1,378 mg per day . Those in the second group had a 12 percent lower risk of dying, while those in the third group had a 22 percent reduction. People who drank the most caffeine per day had a 24 percent lower risk of death.
Those who consumed the most caffeine were more likely to be white males with higher education levels and incomes. They were also more likely to have fewer previous strokes, drink more alcohol, and be current or former smokers when compared to those who drank less caffeine.
Advising patients with kidney disease to drink more caffeine may reduce their mortality, said Dr. Miguel Bigotte Vieira, one of the studys lead authors and a physician based in Portugal. He noted that this was an observational study, so it doesnt show that drinking more caffeine definitely lowers the risk of death in patients with chronic kidney disease. The results need to be confirmed by way of a randomized clinical trial, he said.
How To Have A Healthy Liver
Drinking coffee is just one way to keep your liver healthy. Dr. Wakim-Fleming says its also important to get vaccinated against hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses, which both damage the liver.
A healthy diet is also key. The liver is the first organ to metabolize the foods we eat. Eating a lot of high-sugar, high saturated-fat foods can lead to fatty liver disease, she says. And of course, heavy alcohol drinking can permanently damage the liver and lead to cirrhosis.
However, coffee isnt a miracle worker. It wont completely reverse liver disease or undo the damage caused by excessive alcohol use. But it can be one delicious and satisfying step toward a happier liver.
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Packaged Instant And Premade Meals
Processed foods can be a major component of sodium in the diet.
Among these foods, packaged, instant, and premade meals are usually the most heavily processed and thus contain the most sodium.
Examples include frozen pizza, microwaveable meals, and instant noodles.
Keeping sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day may be difficult if youre eating highly processed foods regularly.
Heavily processed foods not only contain a large amount of sodium but also commonly lack nutrients .
Packaged, instant, and premade meals are highly processed items that can contain very large amounts of sodium and lack nutrients. Its best to limit these foods on a renal diet.
Swiss chard, spinach, and beet greens are leafy green vegetables that contain high amounts of various nutrients and minerals, including potassium.
When served raw, the amount of potassium varies between 140290 mg per cup .
While leafy vegetables shrink to a smaller serving size when cooked, the potassium content remains the same.
For example, one-half cup of raw spinach will shrink to about 1 tablespoon when cooked. Thus, eating one-half cup of cooked spinach will contain a much higher amount of potassium than one-half cup of raw spinach.
Raw Swiss chard, spinach, and beet greens are preferable to cooked greens to avoid too much potassium.
However, moderate your intake of these foods, as theyre also high in oxalates. Among sensitive individuals, oxalates can increase the risk of kidney stones (
What About People With Medical Conditions
There is evidence that suggests coffee can cause sudden, temporary spikes in blood pressure. This is even truer for people, who are not used to drinking coffee, and only do it habitually. The effects can be significantly stronger in the elderly, the young, and those who have a blood pressure problem.
High blood pressure is not an ideal condition for coffee drinking. The other aspect is the known link between hypertension and kidney problems. People who have high blood pressure are much more likely to develop kidney conditions down the road.
Under these specific circumstances, the question is coffee bad for your kidneys starts to make more sense. For those suffering from high blood pressure, it just might, although the evidence is actually lacking.
The aggregate data havent found a significant link between heavy coffee drinkers and those with CKD. From the data, it appears that those, who only drink two, three, or a maximum of four cup of coffees daily, should be fine.
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Is Caffeine Bad For You A Recap
Is caffeine bad for you? The answer is, of course, it depends. Some people are clearly more sensitive to its effects than othersand if you are sensitive, youre probably better off without it or at least better off limiting the amount you consume.
Yet for many of us, there are some pretty impressive health benefits of caffeine consumption. Those benefits, however, evaporate if too much is consumed. So, ensure you consume no more than 200 400 mg a day, which corresponds with research showing that the largest benefits of coffee consumption comes with 15 25 ounces per day . But if your caffeinated vehicle of choice includes energy drinks, soda, chocolate, gourmet espresso and tea drinks, or certain supplements, dont forget that adds up as well.
Coffee And Fatty Liver Disease
Coffee is one of the worlds most popular drinks. Thats led to lots of researchers exploring the health effects of a java habit. Overall, those studies spell good news for liver health.
Coffee is especially helpful when it comes to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, says Dr. Wakim-Fleming.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease occurs when extra fat builds up in liver cells. It affects 1 in 4 people in the U.S., mostly in those who carry excess weight or have diabetes or high cholesterol. Over time, it can cause cirrhosis or scarring of the liver. That scarring can lead to liver cancer or liver failure.
But research shows that people who drink a lot of coffee have a lower risk of developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Coffee appears to protect people who already have liver problems. Theres evidence that coffee is beneficial for people with hepatitis C, a virus that infects the liver and can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.
In people who already have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, regular coffee drinking lowers the odds of developing cirrhosis. And among people who have cirrhosis, those who drink more coffee are less likely to die from the disease.
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Is Drinking Coffee/caffeine Bad For Your Kidneys
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|Image courtesy of amenic181/ FreeDigitalPhotos.net
CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS, BLOOD PRESSURE, AND KIDNEY DISEASEHowever, despite the possibility of these kidney damaging effects of caffeine that would “make sense”, the evidence has not quite panned out that way
Is Decaf Coffee Good For Your Liver
Sorry, youll need to reach for the high-octane stuff. Much of coffees beneficial effects on the liver come from the buzz. You have to consume regular coffee not decaf daily to get the liver benefits, Dr. Wakim-Fleming says. Theres something inherent about caffeine that is helpful to the liver.
There are other beneficial ingredients as well. Coffee contains antioxidants and other compounds that all play a big role in decreasing liver inflammation, she adds.
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The Potential Negative Side Effects Of Caffeine
With the good can come the bad. With caffeine consumption, modest use may have benefits, but excessive use can lead to a number of negative side effects. 19 These include:
- Gout attacks 21
It may also make the symptoms of depression and anxiety worse. And higher intakes have actually been linked to increased weight, lower achievement in school, and a greater risk of severe depression, though its unclear if the increased consumption causes the depression or if depression causes increased caffeine consumption.
Caffeine consumption is also not recommended for children, pregnant women or those trying to become pregnant, and it should be limited for adolescents and nursing mothers due to its potentially negative effects on sleep, which is key to learning and development. 22 Its also not recommended for people who are sensitive to caffeine and those who may feel anxious. And how sensitive you are may be due to your genes.
Too Much Potassium Or Phosphorus
Coffee can turn into a high-potassium beverage if consumed in larger amounts. For example, that venti cup of coffee holds about 352 milligrams of potassium before you add in anything else.
Information in table obtained from the USDA food database.
Canned coffee drinks can oftentimes be much worse. In fact, a 15 ounce can of Starbucks Double Shot has a whopping 1,030 milligrams of potassium . This can account for more than half a days worth of potassium for those with significant potassium restrictions!
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What About Black Tea And Kidneys
In my kidney stone definition earlier, I mentioned that stones are caused by substances that crystallize in the kidneys. One of those crystal-forming substances is oxalate.
Well, black tea has a higher oxalate content than many other beverages. Drinking it leads to more oxalates in the urine, and it can promote stone formation if you consume too much .
One particularly memorable case of this occurred in 2014, when a man developed renal failure because he was drinking a gallon of black tea daily, which led to a heavy load of oxalates . Turns out there can be too much of a good thing!
Coffee Consumption May Be Potentially Harmful To Patients With Incident Ckd
He WJ, et al. CJASN. 2021 doi:10.2215/CJN.12420921.
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A recent study identified 20 metabolites that correlated with self-reported coffee consumption, three of which were also associated with incident chronic kidney disease.
The research, published in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, suggests these metabolites could represent pathophysiologic processes relevant to preventing kidney disease through diet modification.
Moderate coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of incident kidney disease. However, given the complex chemical composition of coffee, the biological mechanisms linking coffee to kidney disease are unclear,William J. He, from Johns Hopkins University, and colleagues wrote. We aimed to use metabolomics to find metabolites which may reflect coffee consumption and to explore the prospective association between these coffee-associated metabolites and incident CKD.
Casey M. Rebholz
In a meta-analysis of two independent study populations, He and colleagues investigated coffee-associated metabolites. Researchers distinguished coffee-associated metabolites among 372 serum metabolites available in two sub-samples of the ARIC study .
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Caffeine And Renal Failure
Caffeine may make renal failure worse. Researchers noted in the 2007 issue of “Renal Failure” that previous studies had shown caffeine exacerbates renal failure if there is kidney disease in combination with metabolic syndrome. In experiments on diabetic rats, the researchers found that within two weeks of starting on caffeine the rats developed increased protein in the urine and increased heart rate. In addition, the arteries in the kidney became less flexible, which can increase blood pressure, although the rats in the study did not show signs of increased blood pressure.